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Dump a Single Database

 mysqldump -u root -p --databases [db-name] > db_$(date +%F).sql

Dump ALL Databases

 mysqldump -u root -p --all-databases --single-transaction > all-db_$(date +%F).sql

Users and Permissions

Show MySQL users, their passwords and hosts

 SELECT user,host,password FROM mysql.user;

Show privileges for a user from a given host

 SHOW GRANTS FOR 'user_name'@'host';

Create a user that can login from localhost

 CREATE USER '[newuser]'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

Create permissions for above user

 GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO '[newuser]'@'localhost';
 GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON [database].* TO '[newuser]'@'localhost';

Export a User